PGTRB, Unit IX, Slip Test 5

Linguistics

  1. Dialect is ‘a variety of a language distinguished according to user’. What is ‘a variety of language distinguished according to use’ called? (PG – 2015)

A. Idiolect            

B. Register                       

C. Tone                            

D. Pitch

ANSWER: B

  • Segmentation of a sentence until the smallest units, morphemes are reached is ________ (PG – 2015)

A. Phrase Structure          

B. TG Grammar   

C. IC Analysis                  

D. Latinate fallacy

ANSWER: C

  • One of the most significant developments in linguistics took place with the publication of Chomsky’s book in 1957 named ‘Syntactic Structures’. It was the inauguration of _______ (POLY – 2017)

A. Transformative Generative Linguistics          

B. Stratificational Linguistics

C. Neo-Firthian Linguistics                                 

D. Tagmemics 

ANSWER: A

  • _________ is the study how context affects the meaning. (Engg – 2016)

A. Syntax                         

B. Semantics                    

C. Pragmatics                   

D. Discourse

ANSWER: C

  • The sets of syntagms characterized as languages by generative grammars are what logicians call _____________ (PG – 2019)

A. formal language

B. informal language

C. phrase – structure grammars

D. transformational grammar

ANSWER: A

  • When the meaning of one form is included in the meaning of another, the relationship is described as __________ (PG – 2019)

A. hyponymy

B. polysemy

C. word play

D. homophones

ANSWER: A

  • Looking quickly over a text to form a general opinion of the content is__________ (PG – 2019)

A. Scanning

B. Skimming

C. Skipping

D. Easy reading

ANSWER: B

  • The language that is spoken in a particular group of people is called _______

A. Idiolect            

B. Dialectology    

C. Dialect                         

D. Chronolect

ANSWER: C

  • ______ is a language used to describe another language.

A. Regiolect                     

B. Vernacular       

C. Sign Language            

D. Metalanguage

ANSWER: D

  1. The format in which words and phrases are arranged to create sentences is called _______

A. Lexicography              

B. Pragmatics       

C. Syntax                         

D. Semantics

ANSWER: C

  1. A register typical for an occupation is called __________

A. Sociolect                     

B. Jargon              

C. Slang                           

D. Dialect

ANSWER: B

  1. A language that is adopted as a common language among speakers whose native languages are different is known as _______

A. Regiolect                     

B. Register                       

C. Lingua Franca             

D. Creole

ANSWER: C

  1. The study of the origin of words and the way in which their meanings have changed throughout history is called _________

A. Semasiology                

B. Etymology                   

C. Diachronic Change     

D. Synchronic Change

ANSWER: B

  1. Which among the following statements is not correct about ‘Creole’?

(A) It a type of natural language that developed historically from a Lingua Franca

(B) It is a mixture of different languages and has become the main language in a particular place

(C) It is acquired by children as their native language

(D) The process of turning a pidgin into a creole is called ​‘Creolization’

ANSWER: A

  1. What is the study of language as it pertains to social classes, ethnic groups and genders?

A. Descriptive Linguistics                                   

B. Sociolinguistics

C. Synchronic Linguistics                        

D. Statistical Linguistics

ANSWER: B

  1. Words pronounced differently but spelt identically are termed as ___________

A. Homophones               

B. Homography   

C. Hyponyms                               

D. Holonymy

ANSWER: B

  1. Who distinguished between the notions of langue and parole in his formulation of structural linguistics?

A. Bloomfield                  

B. Daniel Jones    

C. Noam Chomsky                      

D. Ferdinand de Saussure

ANSWER: D

  1. An approach that considers the development and evolution of a language in a particular period is ___

A. Synchronic                  

B. Diachronic       

C. Linguistics                               

D. Philology

ANSWER: A

  1. Phrase structure rules and the tree structures that are associated with them are a form of ________

A. Linguistics analysis                                         

B. Immediate Constituent analysis

C. word formation analysis                                  

D. grammatical analysis

ANSWER: B

  • __________ is the study of signs and sign processes.

A. Syntax                         

B. Semiotics                     

C. Semasiology                

D. Semantics

ANSWER: B

  • Who is called as ‘The father of American Modern Linguistics’?

A. Ferdinand De Saussure                                   

B. Bloomfield

C. Charles Hockett                                              

D. Zelling Harris

ANSWER: B

  • Phrase structure rules as they are commonly employed result in a view of sentence structure that is _____________ based. 1. constituency 2. dependency 3. prescriptive 4. transformation

A. 1, 4

B. 1, 2

C. 1

D. 3, 4

ANSWER: C

  • ___________ is the features of a literary text at the levels of phonology, syntax, lexis and rhetoric.

A. Literary stylistics         

B. Dialectology    

C. Lexicology                              

D. Philology

ANSWER: A

  • The word ‘Dialect’ comes from ___________ language.

A. Latin                            

B. Greek               

C. French                         

D. Celtic

ANSWER: B

  • Phrase structure grammar is a type of generative grammar in which constituent structures are represented by ___________

A. rewrite rules                

B. prescriptive rules         

C. abstract rules               

D. linguistic rules

ANSWER: A

  • Noam Chomsky called the basic sentence as __________

A. Surface structure         

B. Phrase structure           

C. Kernel sentence                       

D. Root words

ANSWER: C

  • ________ represents the system of language having signs, rules, and patterns devised by a particular social group for communication.

A. Langue            

B. Parole              

C. Syntagmatic                

D. Paradigmatic

ANSWER: A

  • Semiotics originated mainly in the works of two theorists. They are:(a) Charles Sanders Peirce (b) Mikhail Bakhtin (c) Ferdinand de Saussure (d) Valentin Voloshinov. The right combination according to the code is __________ (NET – 2018)

A. (a) and (b)

B. (b) and (c)

C. (a) and (c)

D. (c) and (d)

ANSWER: C

  • An extremely simplified form of a language used as a contact language among speakers of different languages is a _________

A. dialect

B. creole

C. pidgin

D. register

ANSWER: C

  • ‘Collocations’ refer to __________

A. the combination of words in a phrase

B. the act of positioning words

C. grouping of words in a sentence

D. combination of natural words

ANSWER: C

  • Who among the following is not an ‘American Structuralist’?

A. Franz Boas                                                      

B. Edward Sapir   

C. Leonard Bloomfield                                        

D. Ferdinand de Saussure

ANSWER: D

  • Diachrony and Synchrony were introduced by __________

A. Bloomfield                                                      

B. Ferdinand De Saussure

C. Denial Jones                                                    

D. Noam Chomsky 

ANSWER: B

  • Match the following:

      1. Syntagmatic                  –  i. utterance of the language

      2. Paradigmatic                 –  ii. structured language        

      3. Langue                          –  iii. relationship among linguistic units that used sequentially

      4. Parole                            –  iv. relationship between signifier and signified

      5. Sign                               – v. relationship that holds between elements of the same category

      (A) 1-i, 2-ii, 3-iv, 4-v, 5-iii                                              

      (B) 1-iv, 2-v, 3-i, 4-ii, 5-iii

      (C) 1-iii, 2-ii, 3-i, 4-v, 5-iv                                               

      (D) 1-iii, 2-v, 3-ii, 4-i, 5-iv

ANSWER: D

  • What is synchronic approach?

A. study of the development of the language in a particular time

B. study of a language over period of time

C. the part of a language or grammar work together

D. a set of linguistic items that can replace each other in a particular context

ANSWER: A

A. sign                              

B. symbol             

C. significant                                

D. signifie

ANSWER: D

  • The speech sounds or alphabets are arranged in a certain way is known as _______

A. Substance                    

B. Form                

C. Structure                      

D. System

ANSWER: B

  • ___________ is group of words that function as a unit and can make up larger grammatical units.

A. Simple sentence                                              

B. Compound Sentence

C. Complex Sentence                                          

D. Constituent 

ANSWER: D

  • Structural linguistics divided a sentence into _________

A. Simple sentence                                              

B. Compound words

C. Immediate Constituents                                  

D. Words

ANSWER: C

  • The term ‘Phrase Structure Grammar’ was originally introduced by _______

A. Ferdinand de Saussure                        

B. Bloomfield

C. Noam Chomsky                                              

D. Edward Sapir

ANSWER: C

  • The term ‘Immediate Constituent’ was introduced by Bloomfield in 1933 in his work ________

A. Language                                                        

B. Introduction to the Study of Language

C. Philosophy of Science                                     

D. Linguistic Aspects of Science

ANSWER: A

  • Transformational Generative Grammar rules are __________ (1) prescriptive rules (2) descriptive rules (3) rewrite rules     (4) traditional rules

A. 1, 4

B. 1, 2

C. 2, 3

D. 1, 2, 3, 4

ANSWER: C

  • Match the following:

      1. Ferdinand de Saussure              –  i. Linguistic relativity

      2. Noam Chomsky                        –  ii. IC Analysis         

      3. Edward Sapir                            –  iii. Competence and Performance

      4. Leonard Bloomfield                  – iv. Linguistic Signs

      5. Roman Jakobson                       – v. Distinctive features

      A. 1-iv, 2-v, 3-ii, 4-iii, 5-i                        

      B. 1-iv, 2-iii, 3-v, 4-ii, 5-i

      C. 1-iii, 2-ii, 3-i, 4-iv, 5-v                        

      D. 1-iv, 2-iii, 3-i, 4-ii, 5-v

      ANSWER: D

  • Who is a major figure in analytic philosophy and one of the founders of the field of cognitive science?

A. Saussure                      

B. Zelling Harris  

C. Bloomfield                  

D. Noam Chomsky

ANSWER: D

  • Which of the following concepts is not introduced by Noam Chomsky?

A. Competence                                                    

B. Systemic functional linguistics            

C. Transformative Generative Grammar

D. Universal Grammar

ANSWER: B

  • Which of the following is correct about ‘Deep Structure’?

A. Containing all information that needs to make any sentence

B. Radical new thinking in terms of added meaning to sentence structure

C. Writing that goes beyond simple structure and develops further into deep structure

D. Sentence structure that involves deep thought

ANSWER: A

  • What is Language Acquisition Device (LAD)?

A. A part of the brain that encodes the major principles of a language into the child’s brain

B. Set of structural characteristics shared by all languages

C. Children invent rules of a grammar themselves

D. A device used in language lab to facilitate language learning

ANSWER: A

  • The term ‘Linguistics’ comes from the _________ word “Lingua” which means “Tongue”.

A. Greek                          

B. Latin                

C. Spanish            

D. Gothic

ANSWER: B

  • Match the following:

      1. Phoneme                       –  i.  Fundamental unit of the lexicon of a language

      2. Morpheme                     –  ii. Smallest unit in a writing system           

      3. Lexeme                         –  iii. A unit of grammar

      4. Grapheme                      –  iv. Smallest unit of sound

      5. Grammeme                    –  v. Smallest unit of meaning

      A. 1-i, 2-ii, 3-iv, 4-v, 5-iii                                                

      B. 1-iv, 2-v, 3-i, 4-ii, 5-iii

      C. 1-iii, 2-ii, 3-i, 4-v, 5-iv                                    

      D. 1-iii, 2-v, 3-ii, 4-i, 5-iv

      ANSWER: B

  • Who is often regarded as the founder of the study of sociolinguistics?

A. Thomas Callan Hodson          

B. Harry Whitaker

C. Noam Chomsky          

D. William Labov

ANSWER: D

  • Which of the following is not related to historical linguistics?

A. Philology                                             

B. Comparative linguistics

C. Diachronic linguistics                                      

D. Synchronic linguistics

ANSWER: D

  • Which part of the brain is responsible for speech production?

A. Wernicke’s area                                               

B. Broca’s area     

C. Arcuate fasciculus                                           

D. Motor cortex

ANSWER: B

  • Which is the branch of linguistics that deals with the encoding of the language faculty in human beings?

A. Clinical Linguistics                                         

B. Biological Linguistics

C. Ethno linguistics                                              

D. Neurolinguistics

ANSWER: D

  • Onomasiology is the study of ____________

A. the theory and practice of writing dictionary

B. the study of words and expressions having similar concepts

C. the study of the meanings of words and phrases in language

D. the study of the formation of words

ANSWER: B

  • Noam Chomsky’s ‘Language and Mind’ was published in _________

A. 1964

B. 1965

C. 1968

D. 1975

ANSWER: C

  • Which of the following examples are correct except?

A. Appletree is a holonym of apple                     

B. Stationery is a hyponym of pencil

C. Engine is a meronym of car    

D. Tree is a hypernym of fruit

ANSWER: B

  • ‘The pen is mightier than the sword’. This is an example of _________

A. Paronym

B. Polysemy

C. Oronyms

D. Metonymy

ANSWER: D

  • The term ‘Pragmatics’ was coined by the philosopher __________

A. C.W. Morris                

B. Bloomfield                  

C. Roman Jakobson                     

D. Michel Bréal

ANSWER: A

  • Match the following:

      1. Diction                          –  i.  Study of meanings in context

      2. Pragmatics                     –  ii. Choice of words

      3. Graphics                        –  iii. Study of the devices in languages

      4. Semantics                      –  iv. Study of spelling

      5. Stylistics                        –  v. Study of meanings

      (A) 1-ii, 2-i, 3-iv, 4-v, 5-iii                                               (B) 1-iv, 2-v, 3-i, 4-ii, 5-iii

      (C) 1-iii, 2-ii, 3-i, 4-v, 5-iv                                                (D) 1-iii, 2-v, 3-ii, 4-i, 5-iv

      ANSWER: A

  • _____________ is a group of people speaking a common dialect.

(A) Speech community                                        

(B) Literal community

(C) Linguistic society                                          

(D) Language Association 

ANSWER: A

  • ____________ is the distinct form of a language spoken in a certain geographical area.

A. Idiolect            

B. Ethnolect                     

C. Regional Dialect         

D. Social Dialect

ANSWER: C

  • Which of the following is a correct definition about register?

A. The way in which a language registers in the minds of its users

B. A regional variation of a language used by a particular individual

C. It is a language used in informal situations by professionals

D. A variety of language used in social situations or a particular context

ANSWER: D

  • ________ is a geographical boundary line marking the area in which a distinctive linguistic feature commonly occurs.

A. Cultural boundary       

B. Isogloss           

C. Social boundary          

D. Regiolect

ANSWER: B

  • ________ is an individual’s distinctive and unique use of language.

A. Dialect                         

B. Idioglossia                   

C. Ideolect           

D. Sociolect

ANSWER: C

  • Dialectology is the subfield of ___________

A. Appiled linguistics                                          

B. Clinical linguistics       

C. Sociolinguistics                                               

D. Historical linguistics

ANSWER: C

  • __________ refers to a wide variety of methods that teachers use to conduct in-process evaluations of student comprehension and academic progress during a course of study.

A. Formative assessment

B. Summative assessment

C. Brainstorming

D. Achievement Test

ANSWER: A

  • ‘IELTS’ stands for ______

A. Indian English Language Testing System

B. International English Linguistic Testing System

C. International English Language Test System

D. International English Language Testing System

ANSWER: D

  • A language or a dialect that is considered to have greater social value than others:

A. Language Ideology                                         

B. Prestige

C. Speech community                                          

D. Accent

ANSWER: B

  • The art of writing words with the proper letters, according to accepted usage is __________

A. Orthography

B. Lexicography

C. Graphology

D. Cohesion

ANSWER: A

  • __________ describes individual word with multiple and distinct senses.

A. Polysemy

B. Holonomy

C. Homonymy

D. Synonymy

ANSWER: A

  • Which of the following is not correct about pragmatics?

A. context of the utterance                      

B. any pre-existing knowledge

C. inferred intent of the speaker                          

D. structure of a sentence

ANSWER: D

  • Which is concerned with the analysis of word meanings and relations between them?

A. logical semantics                                             

B. lexical semantics

C. Conceptual Semantics                         

D. Computational Semantics

ANSWER: B

  • __________ is the speech disorder that is the production of an unintended sound within a word.

A. Dementia                                             

B. Dyslexia

C. Conduction aphasia                                         

D. Paraphasia

ANSWER: D

  • The term ‘Psycholinguistics’ was coined by Jacob Robert Kantor in his book __________

A. Problems in Neurolinguistics

B. Brain and Language

C. An Objective Psychology of Grammar

D. Sociolinguistics in India

ANSWER: C

  • Which of the following is not an element of non-verbal communication?

A. Facial expressions

B. Voice Modulation

C. Eye contact

D. Name of the speaker

ANSWER: D

  • ________ is the process how an audience is able to understand and interpret the message.

A. Encoding

B. Channel

C. Receiver

D. Decoding

ANSWER: D

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