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Unit XI – General Knowledge
|01||History of Tamil Nadu||03|
|09||Sports and Games||183|
2. Indian History
- Homo sapiens first appeared towards the end of this phase.
- In this period, man barely managed to gather his food and subsisted on hunting.
- Distinguished by the development of the first stone tools made up of Quartzite.
- Palacolithic period is divided into three phases. They are
1. Lower Palaeolithic
2. Middle Palaeolithic
3. Upper Palaeolithic
- Domestication of animals (particularly dogs) began and characteristic tools were used, called as microliths.
- Bhimbetka in Madhya Pradesh, is known for ancient caves depicting pictures of birds, animals and humans.
- Neolithic people knew about fire and wheel
- An important site of this age is Burzahom, which means ‘the place of birch’
- Use of Copper and Stone made tools.
- They practised agriculture, venerated mother Goddess and worshipped the bull.
Indus Valley Civilisation
- Indus Valley Civilisation is one of the four earliest civilisations of the world.
- According to radiocarbon dating, initation of Indus Valley Civilisaition can be dated around 2500-1750 BC
- Systematic town planning was based on grid system; burnt bricks were used to construct houses; well – managed drainage system; fortified Citadel; highly urbanised; absence of iron implements.
- The Great Bath (Mohenjodaro) was used for religious bathing. There were changing rooms alongside.
- Six granaries in a row were found in the Citadel at Harappa.
- The towns were divided into 2 parts; the Upper Part or Citadel and the Lower Part. Harappans were ruled by a class of merchants, as no evidence of weapons are found there.
- Indus people sowed seeds in November and reaped their harvest in April, because of the danger of flood
- Produced wheat, barley, rai, peas, seasum, rice and mustard.
- Indus people first produced cotton, which the Greeks termed as Sindon (derived from Sindh)
- Animals known were oxen, sheep, buffaloes, goats, pigs, elephants, dogs, cats, asses and camels.
- Well-knit external and internal trade. Barter system was prevalent.
- Avery interesting feature of this civilisation was that iron was not known to the people.
- The Indus people used weights and measures in the multiples of 16.
- Harappans looked on Earth as fertility Goddess and phallic (lingam) and yoni worship was prevalent.
- Unicorn was the most worshipped animal. Many trees (pipal), animals (bull), birds (dove, pigeon) and stones too were worshipped though no evidence of temple has been found.
- Dead bodies were placed in North-South orientation.
- The Seal of Pashupati depicts elephant, tiger, rhinoceros and buffalo. Two deen appear at the feet of Pashupati.
- The Indus people believed in ghosts and evil forces evident by their use of amulets for protection against them. Fire altars are found at Lothal and Kalibangan.
- The greatest artistic creation of the Harappan culture were the seals, made of steatite, Harappan script is pictographic, but hasn’t been deciphered yet.
- The script was written from right to left in the first line and left to right in the second line. This style is called Boustrophedon.
- Occupations practiced were spinning, weaving, boat-making, goldsmiths, making pottery and seal-making.
- The possible causes of the decline of the civilisation may be invasion of the Aryans, recurrent floods, social break- up of Harappans and earthquakes, etc.
- Boundaries North-Mandu (J&K); South-Daimabad (Maharashtra); East-Alamgirpur; West – Sutkagendor.
Indus Valley Sites
|Site||Discovery / Finding (s)|
|Harappa||Situated on river Ravi in Montgomery district of Punjab (Pakistan). It was excavated by Daya Ram Sahni in 1921-23. The Indus Civilisation is named after it as the Harappan Civilisation. Stone dancing Natraja and Cemetry- 37 have been found here.|
|Mohenjodaro (Mound of Dead)||Situated on river Indus in Larkana district of Sind (Pak). It was excavated by RD Bannerji in 1922. The main building includes the Great Bath, the Great Granary, the Collegiate Building and the Assembly Hall. The dancing girl made of bronze has been found here. Pashupati Mahadeva/proto Shiva seal; fragment of woven cotton, etc are other finding.|
|Chanhudaro (Sindh, Pakistan)||On river Indus; discovered by NG Majumdar (1931); only Indus site without citadel; bronze figurines of bullock cart and ekkas; a small pot suggesting a kink well.|
|Lothal (Gujarat)||Discovered by SR Rao (1954); situated on river Bhogava. A part of the town was divided into citadel and the lower town and dockyard. Evidence of rice has been found here.|
|Kalibangan (meaning, Black Bangles)(Rajasthan)||Discovered by BB Lal (1961); situated on Ghaggar river, a ploughed field; a wooden furrow; seven fire-altars; bones of camel; and evidence of two types of burials namely – circular grave and rectangular grave.|
|Dholavira||It was found on riyer Luni of Kachchh district in Gujarat. Largest and latest site, discovered by JP Joshi in 1967-68.|
The Vedic Civilization:
The Vedic Civilization was the culture and traditions of the society prevalent during the Vedic age (1500- 600 BCE). It should be noted here that after the decline of Indus Valley civilization by 1500 BCE, the next wave of civilization began to take shape in form of Aryan occupation of Indo-Gangetic plain.
Typically, the age of Aryans is known as the Vedic age because the four major Vedas were created in this time.
- The word Aryan is derived from the Sanskrit word “arya” which means noble, not ordinary.
- They arrived from russian steppes, as is believed and agreed to by majority historians.
- But various scholars voice different opinion about thier origin. Bal Gangadhar Tilak argued that Aryans came from the Arctic region following their astronomical calculations.
- It is generally agreed that they spoke Indo-Aryan Language, Sanskrit.
- They were semi-nomadic, pastoral people, who led a rural life as compared to the urban Harappans.
- The term Veda means “superior knowledge” in Sanskrit.
- Four major Vedas constitute the vedic literature. They are – Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sam Veda, and Atharva Veda.
- Rig Veda – Earliest veda. Has 1028 hymns in praise Gods.
- Yajur Veda – Has details of rules to be followed during sacrifices.
- Sam Veda – Has a collection of songs. The origins of Indian music are traced to it.
- Atharva Veda – has a collection of spells and charms.
- Besides these Vedas, there were Brahmanas, Upnishads, Aryankas, and epics- Ramayana and Mahabharata.
- Brahmanas – Prose about vedic hymns, rituals and philosophies.
- Aryankas – Deal with mysticism, rites and rituals.
- Upnishads – Philosophical texts dealing with soul, mysteries of nature.
- Ramayana was authored by Valmiki.
- Mahabharata was written by Ved Vyasa.
Classification of Vedic Period:
The period of Vedic Civilization(1500-500 BCE) is divided into two broad parts –
- Early Vedic Period (1500-1000 BC), also known as Rig Vedic Period.
- Later Vedic Period (1000- 600 BC).
In Early Vedic Age:
- ‘Kula‘ was the basic unit of political organization.
- Multiple families together of kinship formed a ‘grama‘.
- Leader of ‘grama’ was ‘Gramani‘.
- Group of villages were called ‘visu’, headed by ‘vishayapati‘.
- The highest political and administrative unit was ‘jana‘ or tribe.
- There were several such tribal kingdoms – Bharatas, Matsyas, Yadus and Purus.
- The head of kingdom was ‘Rajan‘ or king.
- The Rig Vedic polity was hereditary monarchy normally.
- There were two bodies- Sabha(council of elders) and Samiti(general assembly of people).
In Later Vedic Age:
- Larger kingdoms by amalgamation formed ‘Mahajanapadas or rashtras‘.
- Therefore, the power of king increased and he performed various rituals and sacrifices to make his position strong like Rajasuya (consecration ceremony), Asvamedha (horse sacrifice) and Vajpeya (chariot race).
- The kings assumed titles of Rajavisvajanan, Ahilabhuvanapathi(lord of all earth), Ekrat and Samrat (sole ruler).
- But, importance of the Samiti and the Sabha diminished.
Dynasties of Ancient India
I. Haryanka dynasty- There are two notable rulers of this dynasty, let us look into the details.
- Bimbisara– He was a contemporary of Mahavir and Buddha. He took control of Anga, to dominate the southern trade routes. He consolidated his position by involving himself in matrimonial alliances.
- Ajatshatru – He fortifies the village of Patliputra for operations against Vaishali. He also convened the First Buddhist Council at Rajgriha. The Barhut sculptures show him meeting buddha.
- Udayin – He founded the city of Patliputra, at banks of Ganga and Son.
II. Saisunga dynasty – Its founder was Saisunga, who transferred the capital from patliputra to Vaishali.
- Kalashoka or Kakavarman convened the Second Buddhist Council at Vaishali.
III. Nanda dynasty – It is considered first non-kshatriya lineage of rulers. They were prosperous and had a big empire.
- Mahapadma Nanda – He was the founder, who assumed the title of ‘Ekarat’ for uprooting all kshatriya dynasties. He is mentioned in Hathigumpha inscription of Kharvela of kalinga.
- Dhana Nanda – He was the last Nanda ruler. Under him Nandas gained a lot f wealth, which finds mention in the sangam works by Mamulanar’s ‘Ahananuru’.
Invasion by Alexander:
Alexander crossed the Hindukush Mountains in 327 BC and spent 10 months in fighting with the tribes. He then moved across the Indus wher the ruler of Taxila, Ambhi greeted him. Alexander asked Porus to submit to him but Porus refused his offer and decided to fight against Alexander.
Thereafter, Alexander marched to the banks of the river Jhelum (Hydaspes) from Taxila. Porus lost the battle after fighting with courage and heroism. Alexander gave him his throne back after being impressed by his abilities. Thereafter Alexander retreated back because his soldiers refused to fight.
Chandragupta Maurya (322 – 298 B.C.)
- Chandragupta Maurya was the first ruler who unified entire country into one political unit, called the Mauryan Empire.
- He had captured Pataliputra from Dhanananda, who was the last ruler of the Nanda dynasty.
- He didn’t do achieve this feat alone, he was assisted by Kautilya, who was also known as Vishnugupta or Chanakya. Some scholars think that Chanakya was the real architect of this empire.
- After establishing his reign in the Gangetic valley, Chandragupta Maurya marched to the northwest and conquered territories upto the Indus. In the north, he occupied the region north of river Narmada.
- In 305 B.C., he defeated Selukas Niketar, who was controlling the northwestern part of India that was under greek control.
- A treaty was concluded, under which, Selukas Niketar ceded the territories of Kabul, Kandhar, Herat, Baluchistan – to the Mauryan Empire. He gave his daughter in marriage to the Mauryan Prince.
- Seleucus sent Megasthenes to the Mauryan court as Greek ambassador.
- Greeks called him Sandrocottas.
- He established a vast empire, extending from Afganistan to Assam and from Kashmir to Karnataka(except Kalinga).
- Later in life, Chandragupta embraced Jainism and stepped down from the throne for his son Bindusara to take over. Thereafterm he went to Sravana Belgola, in Karnataka along with Jain monks who were led by Bhadrabhagu and starved himself to death.
Bindusara (298 – 273 B.C.)
- Some scholars believe Bindusara conquered the Deccan areas up to Mysore.
- Taranatha, the Tibetan monk mentionss that Bindusara conquered sixteen states consisting ‘the land between the two seas’.
- Bindusara maintained friendly relations with Hellenic world. He received Dionysius as ambassador from Ptolemy Philadelphus of Egypt.
- Bindusara supported the Ajivikas sect.
- Bindusara appointed his elder son Susima as governor of Taxila and Asoka as the governor of Ujjain.
Asoka the Great (273 – 232 B.C.)
- About his early life, only few things are known. He served as Governor of Ujjain and also took care of Taxila during his father Bindusara’s reign to help his brother who was facing revolt.
- It is clear from the buddhist sources that the succession of Asoka was a disputed one.
- Hewas the first ruler in Indian history who has left his records on engraved stones.
- His inscriptions are found in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nepal at 47 places.
- His name is found on only the copies of Minor Rock eddict I at 1 place in MP and 3 places in Karnataka.
- At every other incription found on ancient highways, he is refered to either as ‘Devanampiya’ or as ‘piyadasi’.
- The different scripts have been used on his incriptions. Greek and Aramaic in Afghanistan; Kharoshti script and Prakrit language in Pakistan; Brahmi script in prakrit language at other places.
- The most important event of Asoka’s reign was his war with Kalinga in 261 B.C.about which he has mentioned in the Rock edict XIII. This describes in detail the horrors of war, that deeply disturbed him.
- Under the effect of Kalinga war, Asoka embraced Buddhism by the influence of Buddhist monk, Upagupta.
- Extent of Asoka’s Empire: Ashoka added Kalinga to his territory.
Life of Gautama Buddha:
- The founder of Buddhism was Gautam Buddha, was born as Siddhartha.
- Siddhartha was born in 566 BC at Lumbini (now falls in territory of Nepal) in the Sakya clan of Kshatriya. That is why Buddha is also known as Sakyamuni.
- He died at 80 years of age in 486 BC at Kushinagar (near Gorakhpur in uttar Pradesh).
- The name of his father was Sidhdhodhana. He was the only son of his father.
- Siddhartha was married to Yashodhara. He also had a son named Rahul. But neither his wife nor his son were able to tie him to the worldly life.
- He then left his home and became an ascetic at the age of 29 in search of truth and end of sorrows . This event in Buddha’s life is known as “Mahabhishkramana”.
- He then gave his first sermon at Sarnath (Varanasi). This historic event in buddha’s life is known as “Dhammachakra Parivartan”.
- The events in Buddha’s life are depicted by various symbols in Buddhism:
|Event in Life of Buddha||Symbolised by:|
|Buddha’s Birth||Lotus & Bull|
|The Great Departure (Mahabhinishkramana)||Horse|
|Enlightment (Nirvana )||Bodhi Tree|
|First Sermon (Dhammachakraparivartan)||Wheel|
- The main teachings of Buddha are in four noble truths (Arya satya) of Buddhism.
- To conquer the desire, Eight Fold Path has to be followed.
- One of the reasons of spread of Buddhism across the subcontinent was its use of Pali. Pali was the language of common people.
- The literary sources of Buddhism are the three “Tripitaka” written in Pali – Sutta Pitak , VinayaPitak, and AbhidhammaPitak.
- Aswaghosa, the buddhist monk was the writer of Buddhacharita.
- MilindaPanho is a Buddhist Treatise about a dialogue between the Indo-greek king Menander and Buddhist monkNagasena.
There were four councils/Sangeethis of Buddhism organised under different regimes:
I. First Council-
- It was held under the patronage of Ajatshatru (Haryanka Dynasty) in 486BC.
- It was held at Sattapani caves in RajGriha just after the death of Buddha.
II. Second Council-
• In 383 BC. under the patronage of Kalashoka (Shishunaga Dynasty).
• It was held at Vaishali after one century of Buddha’s death(parinirvana).
III. Third Council-
• In 250 BC under the patronage of King Ashoka.
• It was held at Pataliputra
IV. Fourth Council-
• In the 1st century AD, under patronage of King Kanishka (Kushan dynasty).
• It was held in Kundalvana of Kashmir.
• Buddhism was divided into two sects namely, Hinayana and Mahayana.
Vardhaman Mahavira (539- 467 B.C.)
- Vardhamana Mahavira was the 24th Tirthankar of the Jain tradition. He is considered the last tirthankar.
- He was born at Kundagrama near Vaisali in about 546 BC.
- He was born to Kshatriya parents Siddhartha and Trisala.
- He was married to Yasoda and had a daughter from his marriage named Anojja or Priyadarsana.
- In the 13th year of his penance, he attained the highest spiritual knowledge by triumphing over himself. This knowledge is called Kevala Gnan.
- Thereafter, he was called Mahavira, Jina, Kevalin.
- His followers were called the Jains and this religion came to be known as Jainism.
- From this time till his death, he preached his doctrines for 30 years.
- He died at the age of 72 at Pava near Rajagriha (now in Patna district).
Teachings of Mahavira:
- The 3 principles of Jainism are also known as TriRatnas (three gems) are:- – right faith, right knowledge, right conduct.
- Everyone had to strictly follow the doctrine of Ahimsa.
The Sunga Dynasty:
- The founder of Sunga dynasty was Pushyamitra Sunga (187-151 BC).
- He had assasinated the last Mauryan ruler, Brihadratha to capture the throne.
- It was founded by Vasudeva Kanva.
- He had assassinated the last ruler of Sunga dynasty, Devabhuti
The Satvahana Dynasty:
- It was founded by Simuka.
- After the decline of Mauryan Empire in Deccan, the Satavahanas became politically prominent in the middle of the 1st century BC.
- They were the most important native successors of Mauryas.
The Kushana Empire:
- The Kushanas had originally belonged to the regions of western China. They are also known as the ‘Yuehchis’.
- The first important ruler of the Kushana dynasty was ‘Kujula Kadphises’ or Kadphises I.
- He occupied the valley of Kabul and had also issued coins in his name. He was then succeded by his son, Wima Kadphises or Kadphises II.
Kanishka’s Reign and Buddhism:
- There after the Kushana empire was ruled by Kanishka.
- He is considered the most important ruler of the Kushana dynasty.
- Kanishka usurped the throne in AD 78, and then started a new era, what is known to us as the ‘Shaka era’.
- Kanishka remains famous in history as the great patron of Buddhism. He is credited with convening the fourth Buddhist Council at Kundalavan, located at present day Harwan near Srinagar in J&K.
- He was called as Ashoka II.
- Ayurveda, wrote a book on medicine called Charaksamhita whereas Asvaghosha, a Buddhist scholar, wrote Buddhacharita, a full length biography of the Buddha.
The Gupta Empire:
- The Gupta Period is popularly known as the ‘Golden Age of India’.
- The Gupta empire was founded by Sri Gupta.
Chandragupta I (320-330 A.D.)
- Chandragupta was a powerful Gupta ruler who had waged many battles to attain his title of ‘Maharajadiraja’ (king of kings).
- He married a Licchavi princess Kumardevi, which began the eminence of the Gupta empire.
- He is considered as the founder of the Gupta era 320.A.D.
Samudragupta (330-380 A.D.)
- He is also known as “Indian Napoleon”.
- The Allahabad Pillar inscription contains details of his military conquest in all stages.
- It was composed by his court poet Harisena.
Chandragupta II Vikramaditya of Gupta Dynasty (380-415 A.D.)
- The Chinese traveller Fa-hien, who had visited India during the reign of Chandragupta II
- He is also known as Vikramaditya and Sakari.
- His capital city was Pataliputra.
- He has poets like Kalidasa in his court.
- His ministers were called as ‘Navaratanas’.
Kumaragupta (415-455 A.D.)
- He laid the foundation of Nalanda University which later grew to become an international centre of learning.
Skandagupta (455-467 AD)
- He was last great ruler of Gupta dynasty.
- With the rise of Malwa and continuous Hun invasion, the Gupta dynasty totally disappeared.
- The period between the 1st century B.C. to the end of 2nd century A.D. in Southern India is known as Sangam Period.
- It has been named after the Sangam academies during that period.
- According to the Tamil legends, there were three Sangams (Academy of Tamil poets) held in the ancient South India popularly called Muchchangam.
- These Sangams flourished under the royal patronage of the Pandya kings of Madurai.
- The First Sangam, is believed to be held at Sonthern Madurai, attended by gods and legendary sages.
- The Second Sangam was held at Kapadapuram, only Tolkappiyam survives from this.
- The Third Sangam at Madurai was founded by Mudathirumaran.
- The Sangam literature includes Tolkappiyam, Ettutogai, Pattuppattu, Pathinenkilkanakku, and two epics named – Silappathigaram and Manimegalai .
- The two epics Silappathigaram is written by Elango Adigal and Manimegalai by Sittalai Sattanar.
- The Cheras had their rule over major parts of modern Kerala/ malabar areas.
- The capital of Cheras was Vanji and their important seaports were Tondi and Musiri.
- They had the palmyra flowers as their garland.
- The insignia of Cheras is the “bow and arrow”.
- The Chola kingdom in the Sangam period extended from Northern Tamil Nadu to southern Andhra Pradesh.
- Their capital was firstly at Uraiyur and later shifted to Puhar (Tanjore).
- The insignia of Cholas was “tiger”.
- They had the fig flowers as their garland.
- King Karikala was a famous king of the Sangam Cholas.
- Pattinappalai portrays his life and military conquests.
- He also built irrigation tanks (Kallanai) near river Kaveri to provide water for reclaimed land from forest for cultivation.
- The Pandyas ruled over the present day southern Tamil Nadu.
- Their capital was Madurai.
- Their insignia was the “carp (fish)”.
- They had the Neem flowers as their garland.
- Maduraikkanji was written by Mangudi Maruthanar which describes the socio-economic condition of the flourishing seaport of Korkai.
- It’s founder was Pushyabhuti.
- They were feudatories of the Guptas and were known as Vardhans.
- Their capital was Thaneshwar, to the north of Delhi.
- Harsha defeated the ruler of Kannauj and made Kannauj his new capital.
- Hieun Tsang had visited during his reign.
- Dantiduga was the founder of the Rashtrakuta dynasty with his capital at Malkhand or Malkhed.
- The Rashtrakutas built the famous Kailasa Temple at ellora which is remarkable rock-cut architecture.
- Their capital is Kanchi.
- He was the real founder of Pallava dynasty.
- He was a great ruler, who defeated Kalabhras, Cholas to extend territory till Kaveri .
Mahendravarman I (600-630 A.D.):
- Pulakeshin II marched against them & captured northern part of kingdom.
- He was a Jain follower but converted to Saivism after being influence of Saiva saint, Tirunavukkarasar/Appar.
- He is considered a builder of Cave Temples, built temples for Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva.
- Mahendravarman I wrote Mattavilasaprahasanam.
Narasimhavarman I (630-668 A.D.) :
- He is also known as Mamalla which means ‘great wrestler’.
- He defeated Pulakesin II of western Chalukyas in Battle of Manimangalam near Kanchi.
- He captured and destroyed the capital city of Vatapi. He then assumed the title ‘Vatapikonda’.
- He led a navla expedition to sri Lanka.
- During his reign, Hiuen Tsang visited Kanchipuram.
- Narsimhavarman I was the founder of Mamallapuram and monolithic rathas.
Narsimhavarman II (695-722 A.D.):
- He is lso known as Rajasimha.
- He built Shore temple at Mamallapuram and Kailasanatha at Kanchipuram.
- Dandin was a court poet of Rajasimha.
- At Mamallapuram, there is an Open Art Gallery where the ‘descent of ganga’ or ‘Kirtarjunia’/ Penance of Arjuna (UNESCO World Heritage site) is depicted. This is also known as the ‘Fresco Painting in Stone’.
- The Chalukyas ruled from 543 to 755 A.D. in the area of Western Deccan.
- Pulakeshin I was the founder of the Chalukya dynasty.
Pulakeshin II (608-642 A.D.)
- The Aihole inscription composed in sanskrit by his court poet Ravikirti has praises of Pulakeshin II.
- During the reign of Pulakeshin II, Chinese scholar Hiuen Tsang visited the Chalukya Kingdom.
- He overran the Pallava capital kanchi thrice and completely defeated the Pallava dynasty.
- He was the last Chalukyan ruler. He was defeated by Dantidurga, the founder of Rashtrakuta dynasty.
Later Chola Dynasty Empire:
- These later Cholas are termed as “Imperial Cholas” because they excercised control over Sri Lanka and Malay Peninsula.
- He is the founder of ‘imperial Chola Dynasty’.
- Vijayalaya built Thanjavur town with temple for Goddess ‘Nishumbhsudhini’ (Goddess Durga).
- Parantaka built temples, provided golden roof on Vimana of Nataraja temple at Chidambaram.
- The Uttarmerur inscription describing village administration under Cholas belong to his reign.
- Rajaraja I usurped the throne for duration of 985 AD to 1014 AD.
- Rajaraja I held titles like: Mummidi Chola, Jayankonda, Sivapadasekara.
- He built temple for Shiva, Rajrajeshwara temple popularly known as Bhrihadeshwara temple at Thanjavur in 1010 AD.
- This temple is part of UNESCO World Heritage Site in India under ” Great living Chola Temples”.
- He also patronized a Buddhist monastery at Nagapattinam.
- Rajendra I succeeded his father in 1014-1044 AD.
- He defeated the ceylonese king Mahinda V and conquered the whole Sri Lanka.
- He constructed and founded Gangaikondacholapuram.
- He also summoned excavation of a large irrigation tank at Cholagangam.
- He assumed titles like, Mudikondan, Gangaikondan, KadaramKondan, PanditaCholan.
- Mohammad bin Qasin invaded India in A.D. 712.
- Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni led about 17 expeditions of India.
- He attacked Hindu temple of Somnath in 1025.
- Prithiviraj Chauhan defeated Mohammed Ghori in First Battle of Tarain in 1191.
- Mohammed Ghori defeated Prithiviraj Chauhan in Second Battle of Tarain in 1192.
- He is the founder of the Muslim rule in India.
- There were Muslim invasions into India resulted in the established from AD 1206 to 1526. There were five dynasties in the Delhi Sultanate, The Slave dynasty, Khalji, Tuglaq, Sayyids and Lodis.
Slave dynasty of Delhi Sultanate (1206-90):
- The Slave dynasty was also known as Mamluk dynasty.
- Qutub-ud-din-Aibak established the slave dynasty.
- He was a slave of Mohammad Ghori.
- Qutub-ud-din-Aibak constructed 2 mosques, ‘Quwat-ul-Islam’ at Delhi and ‘Adhai din ka Johpra’ at Ajmer.
- He also commsioned the construction of Qutub Minar in honour of Sufi saint Khwaja Qutubuddin Bakhtiyar.
- Iltutmish was a slave of Qutub-ud-din-Aibak
- He belonged to Ilbari tribe.
- He is credited for shifting the capital of his empire to Delhi from Lahore.
- He saved India from Mongol wrath of Chengiz Khan.
- He completed the construction of Qutb Minar at Delhi.
- Raziya was nominated by Iltutmish as his successor.
- She was the first and only Muslim lady who ever ruled India.
- Ghiyasuddin Balban usurped the throne when the previous Sultan Nasiruddin Mahmud, his son-in-law.
- He established a separate military department known as diwan-i-arz.
The Khilji dynasty was founded of Jalauddin Khilji.
Alauddin Khilji (1296-1316 AD)
- Alauddin Khilji killed his father-in-law to usurp the throne.
- He was the first Turkish Sultan of Delhi who separated religion from the State.
- He ordered the measurement of land.
- He established four separate markets in Delhi.
- His greatest achievement was conquest of Deccan.
- He patronized poets like Amir Khusrau and Amir Hasan.
- He built Alai Darwaza and constructed a new capital at Siri.
- Ghiyassudin Tuglaq was the founder of Tugalaq dynasty.
- He killed Khusrau Khan, the last king of Khilji dynasty.
Muhammad bin Tuglaq(1325-1351):
- Mohhamad-bin-Tuglaq shifted the capital from Delhi to Daulatabad in 1327.
- He introduced copper based token currency, for the first time in India in 1329-30.
- He began the scheme of giving loans to farmers for cultivation known as takkavi loans.
- He was called as wise fool king.
Firoz Shah Tuglaq (1351-1388 AD):
- He built Firozabad near Red Fort, popularly known as Firoz Shah Kota.
The final blow to the Tughlaq dynasty was by invasion of Timur in 1398.
- Timur’s nominee was Khizr Khan, who was the governor of Multan.
- He captured Delhi and tried to rule.
- After him, Mubarak Shah, Muhammad Shah ruled for a little while.
- The last Sayyid ruler descended the throne in favour of Bahlol Lodi.
- Bahlol Lodi founded the Lodhi dynasty.
- He was succeeded by Sikandar Lodhi.
- Ibrahim Lodi succeeded Sikandar Lodi.
- He was the last king of Delhi sultanate.
- He was defeated by the Afghan Mughal Babur in the 1st Battle of Panipat in 1526.
- The Vijayanagar Empire was established by Harihar and Bukka in 1336 AD.
- When they set up this principality, Muhammad bin Tughlaq was the Sultan in Delhi.
- The Vijayanagar period is divided into four different dynasties- Sangama, Saluva, Tuluva and Aravidu.
- It extended from Krishna river to extreme south.
- Krishna Deva Raya was a contemporary of Babur.
- He was a devotee of Lord Venkateshwara of Tirupati.
- In his court, eight eminent scholars known as ‘Astadiggajas’ were patronized, like – Allasani Peddana (Andhra-kavita-pitamaha) and Nandi Thimmanna.
- He built Vijaya Mahal, Hazara Ramaswamy temple and Vithal Swami temple at Vijayanaga.
- He also built ‘Rayagopurams’.
- Babur was the founder of Mughal Empire.
- He defeated Ibrahim lodhi in the first Battle of Panipat in 1526 and established Mughal rule in India.
- Babur wrote his memoirs in Tuzuk-i-Baburi in Turki language, describing the flora and fauna of India.
Humayun(1530-1540 AD and 1555-56 AD)
- He was the eldest son of Babur and ascended the throne in 1530.
- He fought two battles against Sher Shah, the afgan leader at Chausa and Kannauj, where he was completely defeated.
Sur Empire Dynasty:
Sur Empire/ Interregenum(1540-1555AD)
- The founder was Sher Shah.
- He ruled for five years but organized the administratin in a brillant manner.
- Land was measured and tax was collected to about 1/3rd the produce.
- He built Purana Qila in Delhi.
- He introduced new coins called as ‘dams’ which remained in circulation till 1835.
- Sher Shah built roads to strengthen communication, mainly 4 important highways. (Grand Trunk Road)
- He is considered greatest monarchs of India.
- He defeated Hemu in 2nd Battle of panipat 1556.
- For initial five years, Bairam Khan consolidated the empire for him.
- Akbar proclaimed his own religion Din-i-Ilahi, against the bigotry of orthodox Ulemas.
- He ordered the construction ibadat khana (House of Worship) at his capital Fatehpur Sikri.
- His important minister was Raja Todarmal.
- Akbar also introduced the Mansabdari System, where every officer was assigned a mansab(rank).
Jahangir (1605-1627 AD)
- His name was Salim.
- Captain William Hawkins of East India Company came to Jahangir’s court.
- Sir Thomas Roe, a representative of King James I of England also came to his court seeking permission establish trading port at Surat.
Shahjahan (1628-58 AD)
- He built the Taj Mahal in memory of his wife Mumtaj Mahal at Agra.
- He built the Red Fort, Jama Masjid at Delhi.
Aurangzeb (1658-1707 AD)
- He assumed the title of Almgir.
- He had reintroduced Jaziya and pilgrim tax.
- His deccan policy ruined the treasury of the Mughal empire.
- Under Bahadur Shah II, the mughal empire came to a formal end.
- The Marathas rose to power under Shivaji.
- He was born at Shivner Fort in 1627.
- He had a council of ministers called Asthapradhan.
- Treaty of Purandar A.D.1665 was between Shivaji and Mughals.
There were five European companies which established their trading centres at various locations in coastal India.
|European Company Name||Headquarter in India||Founded in Year|
|Portuguese East India Company||Cochin, later Goa||1498|
|English East India Company||Surat(1st), later BombayMasulipattnam, later Madras and finally Calcutta||1600|
|Dutch East India Company||Pulicat, later NagapattinamHugli||1602|
|Danish East India Company||Tranquebar, later Serampore in Bengal||1616|
|French East India Company||Surat, later Pondicherry||1664|
Governor Generals of India and Important Events”
|1||Warren Hastings (1732–1818)||» Regulating Act of 1773 » Supreme Court at Calcutta » Asiatic Society of Bengal » English Translation of Bhagwat Gita|
|2||Sir John Macpherson|
|3||The Earl Cornwallis (1738–1805)||»Established lower courts and appellate courts »Sanskrit College established by Jonathan Duncan »Permanent Settlement in Bihar and Bengal in 1793 » Introduction of Cornwallis Code » Introduction of Civil Services in India|
|4||Sir John Shore (1751–1834)||» Policy of Non-intervention » Charter Act of 1793|
|5||Sir Alured Clarke|
|6||The Marquess Wellesley (1760–1842)||»Introduction of Subsidiary Alliance » Fourth Anglo-Mysore War 1799 » Fort William College at Calcutta » Formation of Madras Presidency in 1801|
|7||The Marquess Cornwallis|
|8||Sir George Barlow, Bt|
|9||The Lord Minto (1751–1814)||» Charter Act of 1813|
|10||The Marquess of Hastings|
|»Ended the policy of Non-intervention » Third Anglo-Maratha War (1816-1818) »Creation of Bombay Presidency in 1818 »Establishment of Ryotwari System in Madras|
|12||The Lord Amherst (1773–1857)|
|13||William Butterworth Bayley|
|14||Lord William Bentinck (1774–1839)||» Charter Act 1833|
|14||Lord William Bentinck (1774–1839)|
|15||Sir Charles Metcalfe, Bt|
|16||The Lord Auckland|
|17||The Lord Ellenborough|
|18||William Wilberforce Bird|
|19||Sir Henry Hardinge|
|20||The Marquess of Dalhousie|
|» Doctrine of Lapse » Charles Wood Dispatch »1st Railway line connecting Bombay and Thane » Post Office Act, 1854 »Established Public Works Department »Engineering College was established at Roorkee|
|21||The Viscount Canning|
|»University of Bombay, Calcutta and Madras were set up in 1857 » The revolt of 1857 »The Government of India Act, 1858 »Withdrew Doctrine of Lapse.|
|21||The Earl Canning|
|22||The Earl of Elgin|
|23||Sir Robert Napier|
|24||Sir William Denison|
|25||Sir John Lawrence, Bt|
|»Telegraphic communication was opened with Europe. »High Courts were established at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in 1865. »Created the Indian Forest department.|
|26||The Earl of Mayo|
|»Started the process of financial decentralization in India. »For the first time in Indian history, a census was held in 1871. »Organised the Statistical Survey of India. »Was the only Viceroy to be murdered in office by a Pathan convict in the Andamans in 1872.|
|27||Sir John Strachey|
|28||The Lord Napier|
|29||The Lord Northbrook|
|30||The Lord Lytton|
|»Known as the Viceroy to reverse characters. »Organised the Grand ‘Delhi Durbar’ in 1877 to decorate Queen Victoria with the title of ‘Kaiser I Hind’. »Arms act (1878) made it mandatory for Indians to acquire license for arms. »Passed the infamous Vernacular Press act (1878).|
|31||The Marquess of Ripon|
|»Liberal person, who sympathized with Indians. »Repeated the Vernacular Press act (1882) »Passed the local self government act (1882) »Took steps to improve primary & secondary education (on William Hunter Commission’s recommendations). »The I Factory act, 1881, aimed at prohibiting child labour. »Passed the libert Bill (1883) which enabled Indian district magistrates to try European criminals. But this was withdrawn later.|
|32||The Earl of Dufferin|
|»Indian National Congress was formed during his tenure.|
|33||The Marquess of Lansdowne|
|»II Factory act (1891) granted a weekly holiday and stipulated working hours for women and children, although it failed to address concerns such as work hours for men. »Categorization of Civil Services into Imperial, Provincial and Subordinate. »Indian Council act of 1892 was passed. »Appointment of Durand Commission to define the line between British India and Afghanistan.|
|34||The Earl of Elgin|
|»Great famine of (1896 – 1897) »Lyall Commission was appointed.|
|35||The Lord Curzon of Kedleston|
|»Passed the Indian Universities act (1904) in which official control over the Universities was increased. »Partitioned Bengal (October 16, 1905) into two provinces Bengal (proper) & East Bengal & Assam. »Appointed a Police Commission under Sir Andrew Frazer to enquire into the police administration of every province. »The risings of the frontier tribes in 1897 – 98 led him to create the North Western Frontier Province (NWFP). »Passed the Ancient Monuments Protection act (1904), to restore India’s cultural heritage. Thus the Archaeological Survey of India was established. »Passed the Indian Coinage and Paper Currency act (1899) and put India on a gold standard. »Extended railways to a great extent.|
|36||The Earl of Minto|
|»There was great political unrest in India. Various acts were passed to curb the revolutionary activities. Extremists like Lala Laipat Rai and Ajit Singh (in May, 1907) and Bal Gangadhar Tilak (in July, 1908) were sent to Mandalay jail in Burma. »The Indian Council act of 1909 or the Morley Minto Reforms was passed.|
|37||The Lord Hardinge of Penshurst|
|»Held a durbar in December, 1911 to celebrate the coronation of King George V. »Partition of Bengal was cancelled (1911), capital shifted from Calcutta to Delhi (1911). »A bomb was thrown at him; but he escaped unhurt (December 23, 1912). »Gandhi ji came back to India from South Africa (1915). »Annie Besant announced the Home Rule Movement.|
|38||The Lord Chelmsford|
|»August Declaration of 1917, whereby control over the Indian government would be gradually transferred to the Indian people. »The government of India act in 1919 (Montague Chelmsford reforms) was passed. »Rowlatt act of 1919; Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (April 13, 1919). »Non Cooperation Movement. »An Indian Sir S.P.Sinha was appointed the Governor of Bengal. »A Women’s university was founded at Poona in 1916. »Saddler Commission was appointed in 1917 to envisage new educational policy.|
|39||The Earl of Reading|
|»Rowlatt act was repeated along with the Press act of 1910. »Suppressed non – cooperation movement. »Prince of Wales visited India in November, 1921. »Moplah rebellion (1921) took place in Kerala. »Ahmedabad session of 1921. »Formation of Swaraj Party. »Vishwabharati University started functioning in 1922. »Communist part was founded in 1921 by M.N. Roy. »Kakory Train Robbery on August 9, 1925. »Communal riots of 1923 – 25 in Multan, Amritsar, Delhi, etc. »Swami Shraddhanand, a great nationalist and a leader of the Arya Samajists, was murdered in communal orgy.|
|40||The Lord Irwin|
|»Simon Commission visited India in 1928. »Congress passed the Indian Resolution in 1929. »Dandi March (March 12, 1930). »Civil Disobedience Movement (1930). »First Round Table Conference held in England in 1930. »Gandhi Irwin Pact (March 5, 1931) was signed and Civil Disobediance Movement was withdrawn. »Martydorm of Jatin Das after 64 days hunger strike (1929).|
|41||The Earl of Willingdon|
|»Second Round Table conference in London in 1931. »On his return Gandhi ji was again arrested and Civil Disobedience Movement was resumed in January, 1932. »Communal Awards (August 16, 1932) assigned seats to different religious communities. Gandhi ji went on a epic fast in protest against this division. »Third Round Table conference in 1932. »Poona Pact was signed. »Government of India act (1935) was passed|
|42||The Marquess of Linlithgow|
|»Government of India act enforced in the provinces. Congress ministries formed in 8 out of 11 provinces. They remained in power for about 2 years till October 1939, when they gave up offices on the issue of India having been dragged into the II World War. The Muslim League observed the days as ‘Deliverance Say’ (22 December) »Churchill became the British PM in May, 1940. He declared that the Atlantic Charter (issued jointly by the UK and US, stating to give sovereign rights to those who have been forcibly deprived of them) does not apply to India. »Outbreak of World War II in 1939. »Cripps Mission in 1942. »Quit India Movement (August 8, 1942).|
|43||The Viscount Wavell|
|»Arranged the Shimla Conference on June 25, 1945 with Indian National Congress and Muslim League; failed. »Cabinet Mission Plan (May 16, 1946). »Elections to the constituent assembly were held and an Interim Government was appointed under Nehru. »First meeting of the constituent assembly was held on December 9, 1946.|
|44||The Viscount Mountbatten of Burma|
|»Last Viceroy of British India and the first Governor General of free India. »Partition of India decided by the June 3 Plan. »Indian Independence Act passed by the British parliament on July 4, 1947, by which India became independent on August 15, 1947. »Retried in June 1948 and was succeeded by C. Rajagopalachari (the first and the last Indian Governor General of free India).|
|44||Viscount Mountbatten of Burma|
Demand for Swaraj
(Calcutta session in December, 1906)
- The INC, under the leadership of Dadabhai Naoroji, adopted ‘Swaraj’ (self-government) as the goal of Indian People.
Surat Session (1907)
- The INC split into two groups: the Extremists and the Moderates, due to the debate on nature of Swadeshi Movement.
- Extremists were led by Lal, Bal, Pal while the Moderates by GK Gokhale.
Morley- Minto Reforms (1909)
- The reforms envisaged a separate electorate for Muslims, besides other constitutional measures.
- Lord Minto came to be known as the Father of communal Electorate.
Ghadar Party (1913)
- Formed by Lala Hardayal, Taraknath Das and Sohan Singh Bhakna. Headquarter- san Francisco.
- The name was taken from a weekly paper, Ghadar, which had been started on 1st November, 1913 to commemorate the 1857 Revolt.
Home Rule Movement (1916)
- Started by BG Tilak (April, 1916) at Poona and Annie Besant and Subramnia lyer at Adyar, near Madras (September, 1916).
- Objective Self- government for India in the British Empire.
- Tilak supported the movement and joined Annie Besant. He raised the slogan Swaraj is my Birth Right and I shall have it.
Lucknow Pact (1916)
Pact between INC and Muslim League following a war between Britain and Turkey Leading to anti-British feelings among Muslims. Booth organisations jointly demand dominion status for the country.
August Declartion (1917)
- After the Lucknow Pack, the British policy was announced which aimed at ‘increasing association of Indians in every branch of the administration for progressive realisation of integral part of the British empire’. This came to be called the August Declaration.
- The Montague- Chelmsford reforms or the Act of 1919 was based on this declaration.
Rowlatt Act (18th March, 1919)
- This gave unbridled powers to the government to arrest and imprison suspects without trail. This law enabled the government to suspend the right of Habeas corpus, which had been the foundation of civil liberties in Britain.
- Rowlatt satyagraha was started against the act. This was the first countrywide agitation by Gandhiji.
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (19th April, 1919)
- People were agitated over the arrest of Dr kitchlu and Dr satyapal on 10th April, 1919.
- General O’ Dyer fired at people who assembled in the Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar. The Hunter commission was appointed to enquire into it.
- Rabindra Nath Tagore returned his knighthood in protest.
- Sardar Udham Singh killed General Dyer in Caxton Hall, London.
Khilafat Movement (1920)
- Muslims were agitated by the treatment done with Turkey by the British in the treaty that followed the First World War.
- Ali brothers, Mohd Ali and shaukat Ali started this movement. It was jointly led by the khilafat leaders and the congress.
Non – cooperation Movement (1920)
- Congress passed the resolution in its calcutta session in September, 1920.
- It was the first mass-based political movement under Gandhiji.
- Resignation from nominated offices and posts in the local bodies.
Chauri-Chaura Incident (1922):
- During the Non-cooperation Movement, being provoked by some policemen, a section of the crowd attacked them.
- The police opened fire.
- In retaliation, the entire procession killed 22 policemen and set the police station on fire.
- A stunned Gandhi decided to withdraw the movement.
The Swaraj Party (Jan, 1923):
- The suspension of the Non Cooperation Movement led to a split within Congress in the Gaya session of the Congress in December 1922.
- On 1 January 1923 leaders like Motilal Nehru and Chittranjan Das formed a separate group within the Congress known as the Swaraj Party to contest the council elections and wrecked the government from within.
Simon Commission (Nov, 1927):
- Simon Commission was appointed in the chairmanship of Sir John Simon by the British Conservative government to report on the working of the Indian constitution established by the Government of India Act of 1919.
- All its seven members were Englishmen.
- As there was no Indian member in it therefore the Commission faced a lot of criticism.
- Lala Lajpat Rai was seriously injured in the police lathi charge in a large anti-Simon Commission demonstration on 30 October 1928 and he passed away after one month.
The Dandi march: (1930)
- The Dandi march (Salt Satyagraha) started from Sabarmati Ashram and ended at Dandi (a place in Gujrat).
- This was followed by a lot of agitation all over the country.
- This angered the British government which resulted in the imprisonment of Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi.
- On March 1930, Gandhi signed the Gandhi-Irwin Pact with the Viceroy Lord Irwin to call off the Movement but it finally came to an end on 7th April 1934.
Civil Disobedience Movement: (1930)
- Civil Disobedience Movement was launched in 1930 under Gandhi’s leadership with the violation of the Salt Law after Dandi Salt March.
Poona Pact (1932):
- Poona pact was an agreement upon a joint electorate between the untouchables and the Hindus which The Poona pact took place at Yerawada jail in Pune on 24th September, 1932.
The Individual Satyagraha (August 1940):
- Mahatma Gandhi launched in Individual Satyagraha.
- It was limited, symbolic and non-violent in nature.
- Acharya Vinoba Bhave was the first Satyagrahi and he was sentenced to three months imprisonment.
- Jawaharlal Nehru was the second Satyagrahi and imprisoned for four months.
- The individual Satyagraha continued for nearly 15 months.
Cripps Mission (1942):
- The British Government in its continued effort to secure Indian cooperation sent Sir Stafford Cripps to India on 23 March 1942.
- This is known as Cripps Mission. The major political parties of the country rejected the Cripps proposals.
- Gandhi called Cripp’s proposals as a “Post-dated Cheque”.
Quit India Movement: (1942)
- The Quit India Movement, also called the August Movement, launched on 8th August, 1942.
- It was a result of Gandhi’s protest against the return of Sir Stafford Cripps.
- He wanted to negotiate with the British government for the independence of India through this movement.
- He gave slogan – ‘Do or Die. On 9th August leaders of the Congress like Abul Kalam Azad, Vallabhbhai Patel, Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru were arrested.
The Cabinet Mission Plan (1946)
- Members were wavell, Patrick Lawrence, Alexander and Stafford Crippa.
- Main proposals
1. Rejection of demand for a full fiedged Pakistan.
2. Loose union under a Centre with Centre’s with centres control over defence and foreign affairs
3. Provinces were to have full autonomy and residual powers
4. Provincial legislatures would elect a Constituent Assembly.
Both the Congress and the Muslim League accepted it.
Formation of Interim
Government (2nd September 1946)
- It came into existence on 2nd September 1946 in accordance with Cabinet Missions proposals and was headed by JL Nehru Muslim League refused to join it initially.
- Prime Minister Attlee on 20th February 1947 announced that British would withdraw from India by 30th June 1948.
Formation of Constituent
Assembly (December 1946)
- The Constituent Assembly met on 9th December 1946 and Dr Rajendra Prasad was elected as its President.
Jinnahs Direct Action Resolution (16th Augest 1946)
- The election result did not favour Muslim League so Jinnah withdrew his acceptance to the Cabinet Mission Plan.
- Muslim League passed a Direct Action Resolution which condemned both the British Government and the Congress (16th august 1946) It resulted in heavy communal riots.
- Jinnah celeberated Pakistan Day on 27th March 1947.
Mountbatten Plan (also called 3rd June plans) (3rd June 1947)
The plan formulated by Lord Mountbatten outlined that
- Indian was to be further divided into India and Pakistan
- There would be a separate Constitutional Assembly for Pakistan to frame its Constitution
- The princely states would enjoy the liberty to either join India or Pakistan or could even remain independent.
- Bengal and Punjab will be partitioned and a referendum in NWFP and sylhet district of Assam would be held. A separate state of Pakistan would be erected Boundary Commission was to be headed by Radcliffe.
Partition and Independence (August 1947)
- Indian Independence Act 1947 implemented on 15th August 1947 abolished the sovereignty of British Parliament Dominions of India and Pakistan were created. Each dominion was to have a Governor General Pakistan was to comprise Sind, British Baluchistan NWFP West Punjab and East Bengal .
- Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. the first Home Minister integrated all the stated by 15th August 1947 Kashmir Hyderabad Junagarh Goa (with Portuguese) and Pondicherry (with French) later acceded to Indian Federation.
2. Indian History
- Match the List – I with List – II and find out the correct matching by the given code:
(Engg – 2016)
List – I List – II
(a) Montague – Chelmsford Reforms (i) 1909
(b) Minto – Morely Reforms (ii) 1927
(c) Simon Commission (iii) 1942
(d) Cripps Mission (iv) 1919
(a) (b) (c) (d)
(A) (ii) (iv) (iii) (i)
(B) (iv) (i) (ii) (iii)
(C) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
(D) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)
- Identify the Mughal Emperor who ruled in India during 1658 – 1707? (DIET – 2016)
(A) Akbar (B) Jahangir (C) Shah Jahan (D) Aurangzeb
- The island of Bombay was acquired by the British from whom? (DIET – 2016)
(A) The Dutch (B) The Portuguese (C) The French (D) The Marathas
- Who worked as the Governor General in the East India Company and as the Viceroy in the British Government, in India? (DIET -2016)
(A) Lord Dalhousie (B) Lord Canning (C) Lord Elgin (D) Lord William Bentinck
- When did Mahatma Gandhi return to India from South Africa? (DIET – 2016)
(A) November, 1914 (B) December, 1914 (C) January, 1915 (D) February, 1915
- Which work is known as an encyclopaedia of social life in the Eleventh Centry?
(PT – 2016)
(A) Dasakumaracharita by Dandin (B) Kathasaritsagara by Somadeva
(C) Karpuramanjari by Rajasekhara (D) Rajatarangini by Kalhana
- Who led the French forces during the battle of Waterloo? (PT – 2016)
(A) Duke of Wellington (B) Duke of Cornwall
(C) Napoleon Bonaparte (D) Duke of Scotland
- The Veda which deals mostly with music is _____________ (PG – 2015)
(A) Rig Veda (B) Sama Veda (C) Yajur Veda (D) Atharva Veda
- In India’s freedom struggle the non-co-operation movement was launched in _________
(A) 1916 (B) 1918 (C) 1920 (D) 1922
- During the Indian Freedom Movement who led the Salt Satyagraga at Vedaranyam in Tamil Nadu? (PG -2015)
(A) Rajaji (B) SardarVedarathinam (C) Sathyamoorthi (D) Jeevanandam
- Who among the following was called ‘Deshabandhu’? (PT – 2006)
(A) C.R.Das (B) Gandhiji (C) Nehruji (D) Rajaji
- The first governor of Bengal appointed by the east India company was _________ (DIET – 2009)
(A) Warran Hastings (B) Robert Clive
(C) Lord William Bentink (D) Lord Dalhousie
- The third Indian National Congress (1887) Conference was held in ______ (PG – 2013)
(A) Delhi (B) Bombay (C) Chennai (D) Calcutta c
- Match the following List – I with List – II correctly and select your answer using the codes given below. (PT – 2006)
List – I List – II
(A) Advaita – 1) AdiSankara
(B) Nayanmar – 2) Appar
(C) Dvaita – 3) Ramanujar
(D) Vishishtadvaita – 4) Madhva
a b c d
(A) 1 3 2 4
(B) 2 1 3 4
(C) 1 2 4 3
(D) 1 2 3 4
- The expansion of SSA is __________ (DIET – 2009)
(A) Sarva Shakti Abbiyan (B) Salem Steel Authority
(C) Staff Selection Agency (D) SarvaShikshaAbhiyan
- The sailor who first discovered a sea route to India is _____________ (DIET – 2012)
(A) Columbus (B) Vasco da Gama
(C) Dunn (D) Gearheart
- The East India Company of England got permission to trade in India during the period of ___________ (PG – 2013)
(A) Shahjahan (B) Jahangir (C) Bahadur Shah (D) Aurangzeb
- The name by which Ashoka is generally referred to in his inscription is __________ (PG – 2012)
(A) Chakravarthi (B) Dharmadeva (C) Priyadarshi (D) Dharmakirit
- Which of the following provided the revenue for the Delhi Sultanate? (PG – 2012)
(A) Kharaj (B) Khams (C) Jiziya (D) Zakat
- The boundary line demarcating Indian and Pakistan is known as ___________
(A) Macmahon line (B) Durand line (C) Maginot line (D) Radcliffe line
- The Red Fort of Delhi was built by __________ (PG – 2006)
(A) Shah Jahan (B) Jahangir (C) Aurangazeb (D) Akbarm
- The battle of Wandiwash was fought between __________ (BRTE – 2010)
a) Marathas and Portuguese b) The English and the French
c) The English and Portuguese d) Marathas and the English
- Who was the Viceroy of India, when the Rowlatt Act was passed? (BRTE – 2010)
a) Lord Irwin b) Lord Chelmsford
c) Lord Wavell d) Lord Wellington
- Confucius was a great philosopher of ancient __________ (AEEO – 2010)
a) India b) China
c) Africa d) Egypt
- The second world war took place in the years _________ (BRTE – 2008)
a) 1919-1925 b) 1939-1945
c) 1925-1931 d) 1945-1951
- The ‘Navaratnas’ were famous during the period of ________ (UG TRB – 2005)
a) Chandragupta I b) Chandragupta II
c) Samudragupta d) Srigupta B
- Chanakya was the author of ___________ (UG TRB – 2002)
a) Dharmasastra b) Dootasastra
c) Arthasastra d) Nitisastra
- Who built SanchiStupa? (UG TRB – 2002)
a) Asoka b) Harsha
c) Chandragupta d) Kanishka
- Who was called as Indian Napoleon _________ (UG TRB – 2002)
a) Krishnadevaraya b) Samudragupta
c) Babar d) Akbar B
- Mahatma Gandhi was born in __________ (UG TRB – 2002)
a) 1889 A.D b) 1871 A.D
c) 1869 A.D d) 1890 A.D
- When was Indian Capital transferred to Delhi from Calcutta? (UG TRB – 2002)
a) 1912 A.D. b) 1917 A.D.
c) 1914 A.D. d) 1911 A.D.
- Copper coins were issued by _________ (UG TRB – 2001)
a) Alaud-din-Khilji b) FiruzTughlaq
c) Giyasud-din-Tughlaq d) Mohammed-bin -Tughlaq
- SardarVallabhai Patel is recognized in Indian history because _______ (AEEO – 2012)
a) he was an efficient lawyer
b) he was the first Speaker of the LokSabha
c) he was the Deputy Prime Minister of India
d) he brought unity in Indian Nation
- Match the following:
(A) Annie Besant – (1) Young India
(B) G.Subramaniya Ayyar – (2) The Hindu
(C) Motilal Nehru – (3) New India
(D) M.K.Gandhi – (4) Independent
a b c d
(A) 1 2 3 4
(B) 3 4 2 1
(C) 1 4 3 2
(D) 3 2 4 1
- Do or Die slogan is associated with………………………
A. Mahatma Gandhi
B. Bala Gangadhara Tilak
C. Jawaharlal Nehru
- Who established the Mughal Dynasty?
D. Bahadur Shah
- The Indian National Congress was founded by …………………
A. Mahatma Gandhi
B. Annie Besant
- The Civil services in India was established by ………………….
A. Lord Rippon
B. Lord Dalhousie
C. Lord William Bentick
D. Lord Cornwallis
- The founder of Portuguese power in India was …………………
- What was the time period of Indus Civilization / Harappan Civilization ?
- 2400 BC – 1700 BC
- 2400 BC – 1750 BC
- 2500 BC – 1700 BC
- 2500 BC – 1750 BC
- Arya Samaj was started by ___________
A. Swami Vivekananda
B. Raja Ram Mohan Roy
C. Swami Dayanand Saraswati
D. Gopal Krishna Gokhale
- Who among the following participated in all the three Round Table Conferences ?
A. Madan Mohan Malviya
B. B. R. Ambedkar
C. Sardar Patel
D. Jawarhal Nehru
- Which was the ancient port of Indus Civilization ?
- The Battle of Plassey was fought in ___________-
- Which is the oldest text in the world ?
- Yajur Veda
- Atharva Veda
- Rig Veda
- Sama Veda
- Lord Buddha made his first sermon at ……………….
D. Lumbini Gardens
- Which veda is important for Indian Music ?
- Sama Veda
- Yajur veda
- Atharva Veda
- Rig Veda
- Which Veda contains cure of diseases?
- Sama Veda
- Atharva Veda
- Rig Veda
- Yajur Veda
- A council of Eight Ministers known as the Ashta Paradhan assisted?
A. Sher Shah
B. Balaji Baji Rao
D. Ahmad Shah Abdali
- The quit India movement was started in the year ……………
|2. Indian History|